PIC (Programmable Interface Controllers) microcontrollers are the world’s smallest microcontrollers that are programmable for bigger carry tasks. You can find these microcontrollers in many electronic devices such as phones, alarm systems, computer control systems, embedded systems, and more. Owing to their simplicity in architecture and ease of use, PIC microcontrollers are a hit amongst students and professionals. At PIC Microcontroller Training in Delhi, you can learn about its architecture and its working procedures.
PIC Microcontrollers Architecture
The PIC microcontroller is made on RISC architecture. However, its memory architecture comes from the Harvard pattern of separate memories for programs and data, with separate buses.
1.1 Program Memory: This hosts 4K*14 memory space. It is useful for storing 13-bit instructions or the program code. The program memory data is accessible by the program counter register that stores the address of the program memory.
1.2 Data Memory: The data memory comprises of 368 bytes of RAM and 256 bytes of EEPROM. The 368 bytes of RAM comprise multiple banks. Each bank holds general-purpose registers and special function registers. Whereas, the special function registers have control registers to control different operations of the chip resources like Timers, Analog to Digital Converters, and more. Further, general-purpose registers are useful to store temporary data and process the results of the data. The general purpose registers are further divided into Working Register, Status Register, and File Selection Register.
The PIC16 series comprises five ports;
A: It is a 16-bit port, useful as an input or output port built on the status of the TRISA register.
B: It is an 8-bit port, accessible both as an input and output port.
C: It is an 8-bit port for determining the status of the TRISC register.
D: It is an 8-bit port, apart from being an I/O port, it acts as a slave port for connection to the microprocessor bus.
Port E: It is a 3-bit port that gives additional functions of the control signals to the A/D converter.
PIC microcontrollers comprise 3 timers. Where Timer 0 and Timer 2 are 8-bit timers and Time-1 is a 16-bit timer, which is also useful as a counter.
The PIC Microcontroller comprises of 8-channels, 10-bit Analog to Digital Converter. Additionally, these special function registers are responsible for handling the workings of the A/D converter.
Oscillators are useful in timing generation. Besides, PIC microcontrollers comprise external oscillators like crystals or RC oscillators. Additionally, in crystal oscillators, the crystal is connected between two oscillator pins, and the value of the capacitor is connected to each pin which determines the mode of operation of the oscillator.
A CCP module functions in the following three modes:
Capture Mode: This mode looks after the time of arrival of a signal, or captures the value of the Timer1 when the CCP pin goes high.
Compare Mode: It works as an analog comparator that develops an output when the timer1 value reaches a certain reference value.
PWM Mode: It offers pulse width modulated output with a 10-bit resolution and programmable duty cycle.
Application of PIC Microcontroller
Street Light Glowing with Detecting Vehicle Movement
This LED street light control project is built to detect the vehicle movement on the highway to switch on a block of street lights moving ahead of it. And further to switch off the trailing lights to save energy. Moreover, in this project, PIC microcontroller programming is done with embedded C or assembly language.
The architecture of the PIC Microcontroller may sound tough. But with a proper descriptive training module, you can learn to master this section. To help you on this path, PIC Microcontroller Training in Noida will guide you correctly. However, it is very crucial to acquire a proper understanding of its architecture. As PIC Microcontrollers are useful in many different appliances, it will be very beneficial to learn their working cycle.