The force exerted by the blood against the artery walls is called Blood pressure. High blood pressure is a common condition affecting the arteries of the body. It is also known as Hypertension. The force of the blood pushing against the artery walls is always too strong when you have high blood pressure. The heart has to work harder to pump blood.
Obesity is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, which causes artery narrowing and stiffening and frequently results in hypertension. It is concerning because it raises your risk of developing a number of cardiovascular illnesses, such as heart disease, and hypertension. Obesity also increases the risk of diabetes, disability and death.
This article will look at how obesity increases your risk of hypertension and the steps taken to prevent it.
What is the Effect of High Blood Pressure?
The higher the blood pressure, the greater your risk of developing other health issues such as heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. High blood pressure is often referred to as the “silent killer” because you may be unaware that anything is wrong, but the damage is still being done within your body.
Blood pressure that is 120/80 mm Hg or higher is considered to be hypertension. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).
- Blood pressure (normal range) – less than or equal to 120/80 mm Hg.
- High blood pressure – The top number ranges from 120 to 129 mm Hg, while the bottom number is less than, not greater than, 80 mm Hg.
- Hypertension (1st stage) – The upper limit is between 130 and 139 mm Hg, while the lower limit is between 80 and 89 mm Hg.
- Hypertension (2nd stage) -The upper limit is 140 mm Hg or higher, and the lower limit is 90 mm Hg.
What are the types of High Blood Pressure?
You may be diagnose with either of the two types of high blood pressure by your general physician:
- Primary Hypertension (Essential Hypertension): This is often considered the most common type of high blood pressure caused by aging, unhealthy eating habits, and not doing any physical activity.
- Secondary Hypertension (High Blood Pressure): This can be caused by a variety of medical issues (such as kidney or hormonal issues) or by any medication you’re taking.
How Obesity causes High Blood Pressure?
There is a close link between obesity and hypertension (high blood pressure). Obesity can either cause hypertension or aggravate it if you already have it. Having more fat tissue in the body can result in complex changes that combine to cause or worsen obesity-related hypertension. Among the changes are:
- Overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system
- Stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) system
- Changes in adipose-derived cytokines (hormones)
- Insulin resistance affects the kidneys and how they work
What are the Complications of Obesity-related Hypertension?
High blood pressure damages blood vessels and internal organs by placing too much pressure on the artery walls. The damage, if remained unchecked for a longer period of time increases as blood pressure continues to rise.
Uncontrolled high blood pressure can result in complications like:
Angina or a stroke: These complications can result from the hardening and thickening of the arteries brought on by high blood pressure or other factors.
Aneurysm: An aneurysm is a weakening and ballooning blood vessel that develops as a result of high blood pressure. A ruptured aneurysm may endanger life.
Heart Failure: High blood pressure makes it more difficult for the heart to pump blood. The walls of the pumping chamber of the heart become thicker due to the strain. The term “left ventricular hypertrophy” is often refer to for this condition. Heart failure results when the heart can no longer adequately pump blood to meet the body’s demands.
Kidney issues: The blood vessels in the kidneys may narrow or weaken as a result of high blood pressure. This might harm your kidneys.
Eye issues: Blood vessels in the eyes may become thicker, narrower, or torn as a result of high blood pressure. This may also result in loss of vision.
How is Obesity-related Hypertension Treated?
It is possible to reverse or reduce these body changes while also managing your weight and blood pressure. Doctors’ primary treatment for both conditions is weight loss. They frequently advise dietary and lifestyle modifications, which are sometimes combine with bariatric or weight loss surgery.
Typically, medical professionals combine weight loss (with or without surgery) with other treatments, such as medications.
Several medications can be prescribe by doctors to help treat obesity-related hypertension. If one of the medications does not work, doctors may substitute another.
On a case-by-case basis, doctors may also consider prescribing weight loss medications. Some medications work better in obese people than others.
Normally, doctors who treat obesity advise focusing on and modifying one’s lifestyle. They’ll advise cutting back on salt, caffeine, and alcohol in your diet. They’ll also promote more physical activity. A moderate weight can be establish and maintain with significant lifestyle changes.
These changes include:
- Consuming a balanced, low-calorie diet
- Avoiding caffeine
- Staying active by regularly engaging in an activity you enjoy
- Getting a good sleep
- Refraining from overindulging in alcohol
- Avoiding secondhand smoke or quitting smoking if you already do
- Reducing stress
The changes made over a long period of time may become challenging to implement and maintain. To reduce the risk of serious complications, you might need to lose a lot of weight quickly. If so, your physician might advise bariatric surgery, which is designed to help you lose enough weight.
The American Heart Association recommends surgery as a treatment option for obesity-related hypertension, particularly if you also have another related condition or a BMI of 40 or higher.
Currently, there are four different metabolic surgeries carrie out in the US:
- Adaptable gastric bands
- Sleeve gastrectomy
- Gastric bypass
- Duodenal switch and biliopancreatic diversion
All of these procedures reduce the size of your stomach, which in turn reduces the amount of food you can consume. You can’t fully absorb what you’ve eaten because the second two also bypass some of the intestines.
In the US, the prevalence of obesity and hypertension linked to it is rising quickly. Doctors typically treat both conditions concurrently because obesity has a number of mechanisms that contribute to and exacerbate high blood pressure. Managing both conditions is very doable.
Improving one’s lifestyle is the first step in treating obesity and hypertension. Medication and, as a last resort, surgery, may be additional viable options. Certain Research Organizations in Texas are conducting Clinical Trials that may be able to help people with Hypertension and associated Cardiovascular illnesses.
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